An Eagle’s eye view to Building Management System (BMS)

An Eagle’s eye view to Building Management System (BMS)

                        Building Management System (BMS), also known as Integrated Building Management Systems (IBMS), Building automation system (BAS), Building Management and Control System (BMCS), is a computer-based control system installed in buildings that monitors and controls the building's mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems, and security systems. More specifically, they link the functionality of individual pieces of building equipment so that they operate as one complete integrated system.
Building management systems are most commonly implemented in large projects with extensive mechanical, HVAC, and electrical systems. Systems linked to a BMS typically represent 50% of a building's energy usage, if lighting is included; this number approaches up to 70%.
BMS systems, sometimes include access control or other security systems such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) and motion detectors. Fire alarm systems and elevators are also sometimes linked to a BMS for monitoring. In case a fire is detected then only the fire alarm panel could close dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading, shut down air handlers, start smoke evacuation fans, and send all the elevators to the ground floor and stop to prevent people from using them.
Current generation BMS systems are now based on open communications protocols and are WEB enabled, allowing integration of systems from multiple vendors and can be accessed from anywhere in the world.

Lists of systems that can be monitored or controlled by a BMS are shown below:

Ø  Illumination (lighting) control
Ø  Electric power control
Ø  Security and observation
Ø  Liftselevators etc.
Ø  Plumbing
Ø  Other engineering systems
Ø  Control Panel
Ø  PA system
Ø  Alarm Monitor
Ø  Security Automation

However, the most common primary function of the BMS is the control of a building’s Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems (HVAC) that includes;
 – Air Handling Units
 – Chilled Water Plant
 – Cooling Towers
 – Heating Water Plant
 – Exhaust Systems
 – Zone Controls
 – Server Room Precision AC
 – CO2 monitoring and control (Air Quality)
 – Toilet, car park, kitchen and general exhaust fan control

 The BMS is used to do the following daily operations:

Ø  Control of Building Systems and Services
Ø  Real Time Monitoring of Building Operation and Performance
Ø  Trending and Logging of Building Operation and Performance
Ø  Time Scheduling of Building Systems
Ø  Fault Management and Alarm Monitoring
Ø  Control Application Programming
Ø  User Event Management
Ø  Energy Management and Reporting

 There are several advantages in using a BMS. Some of them are listed below:

Ø  Possibility of individual room control: Temp, Humidity, Luminosity, Occupancy, etc.
Ø  Increased productivity in the facilities operations’ team.
Ø  Effective monitoring and management of energy consumption.
Ø  Improved plant reliability and life.
Ø  Effective response to HVAC-related complaints.
Ø  Save time and money during the maintenance.
Ø  Occupancy sensors allow automatic setback override during unoccupied periods as well as adaptive occupancy scheduling.
Ø  Lighting controls reduce unnecessary artificial lighting via motion sensors and schedule.
Ø  Controllers save water and energy by controlling rainwater harvesting and landscape irrigation.

The above are simple operations that a BMS helps in. However, by having a fully functional BMS, one gets the power of having data logged and stored. These provide great trending charts and insights into the operations. Post mortem of such valuable data is very useful and one can achieve some of the following benefits:
Ø  Data is consolidated into a single system to improve reporting, information management and decision-making. Integrating and managing the HVAC, energy, security, digital video and control for better performance.
Ø  Increased operational savings – Efficient resource deployment can result in reduced operational costs, empowering operators, simplifying training and decreasing false alarms.
Ø  Energy efficient – Real-time view into facility operations and deep trend analysis provide data-driven insight to optimize your energy management strategies and minimize operational costs.
Ø  Reduced risk – Strategic mobile or desktop control, exceptional alarm management and integrated security solutions helps to see the big picture, helping to speed up response time and mitigate risks for the property, people and business.
Ø  Intelligent reporting – Comprehensive reporting with functionality for customizable reports delivers greater transparency into system history and promotes compliance.
Ø  BMS also deals with energy demand management. EDM integrates energy policies and regulations in to overall company operations. It incorporates energy targets into overall business strategies. EDM conduct management reviews and establishes a system to collect, analyses and report data related energy consumption and ensure correctness and integrity of that data.

                      -Prashant Mudhol


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